儒家: 《禮記》 – 《中庸》 (公元前475年 – 公元前221年)
“The state of equilibrium and harmony“ (475-221 BC)
aka “Doctrine of the Mean” (with English translation by James Legge)
哀公問政。子曰：… 故為政在人，取人以身，修身以道，修道以仁。仁者人也，親親為大；義者宜也，尊賢為大。… 故君子不可以不修身；思修身，不可以不事親；思事親，不可以不知人；思知人，不可以不知天。…
The Duke Ai asked about government. The Master said, “… Therefore the administration of government lies in getting proper men. Such men are to be got by means of the ruler’s own character. That character is to be cultivated by his treading in the ways of duty. And the treading those ways of duty is to be cultivated by the cherishing of benevolence. Benevolence is the characteristic element of humanity, and the great exercise of it is in loving relatives. Righteousness is the accordance of actions with what is right, and the great exercise of it is in honoring the worthy. … Hence the sovereign may not neglect the cultivation of his own character. Wishing to cultivate his character, he may not neglect to serve his parents. In order to serve his parents, he may not neglect to acquire knowledge of men. In order to know men, he may not dispense with a knowledge of Heaven.
哀公问政。子曰：“… 故为政在人，取人以身，修身以道，修道以仁。仁者，人也，亲亲为大。义者，宜也，尊贤为大。… 故君子不可以不修身。思修身，不可以不事亲；思事亲，不可以不知人；思知人，不可以不知天。…
鲁哀公询问政事。孔子说：“… 说起来，治理政事就完全取决于用什么人。要得到适用的人在于修养自己，修养自己在于遵循大道，遵循大道要从仁义做起。仁就是爱人，亲爱亲族是最大的仁。义就是事事做得适宜，尊重贤人是最大的义。… 所以，君子不能不修养自己。要修养自己，不能不侍奉亲族；要侍奉亲族，不能不了解他人；要了解他人，不能不知道天理。