儒家: 《論語》 (公元前480年 – 公元前350年)
“The Analects of Confucius“ (480-350 BC) English translations by James Legge, or Leonard A. Lyall.
Fan Chi asked what constituted wisdom. The Master said, “To give one’s self earnestly to the duties due to men, and, while respecting spiritual beings, to keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom.” He further asked about perfect virtue. The Master said, “The man of virtue makes the difficulty to be overcome his first business, and success only a subsequent consideration – this may be called perfect virtue.”
【Alternative translation】Fan Ch’ih asked what is wisdom. The Master said, “To foster right among the people; to honour ghosts and spirits, and yet keep aloof from them, may be called wisdom.” He further asked what is benevolence. The Master said, “To rank the effort above the result may be called benevolence.”