儒家: 《論語》 (公元前480年 – 公元前350年)
“The Analects of Confucius“ (480-350 BC) English translations by James Legge, or Leonard A. Lyall.
Xian asked what was shameful. The Master said, “When good government prevails in a state, to be thinking only of salary; and, when bad government prevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of salary – this is shameful.”
“When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and covetousness are repressed, may this be deemed perfect virtue?” The Master said, “This may be regarded as the achievement of what is difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue.”
【Alternative translation】Hsien asked what is shame. The Master said, “To draw pay when the land keeps the Way and to draw pay when it has lost the Way, is shame.”
“To eschew strife and bragging, spite and greed, would that be love?” The Master said, That may be hard to do; but I do not know that it is love.”
【试译】原宪问什么算可耻，孔子说：“国家治理有方，当官领薪；国家暗无天日，还当官领薪，多可耻。” 原宪又问：“逞能、夸口、怨忿、贪婪的毛病都没有，可以算仁吗？” 孔子说：“可以算难能可贵了。至于说仁啊，我就不知道了。”